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What are the main obstacles for the AU in bringing peace and security to Somalia

a) Introduction – 1 page
b) Literature review – 2 page
c) Research design – 3 pages
1) Introduction :- This needs to be clear and concise with your central and relatively narrow focus brought upfront, ideally putting the basic elements of your research questions into the first paragraph or even the first sentence. The introduction contains the question, and its relevance.
2) Literature review: What we expect you to use literature from the other two modules whenever relevant in helping you to understand two things: a) what research has already been conducted that is relevant to your research question; and b) how it has been conducted. That is, how did scholars go out into the world and produce this knowledge.
3) Research design:- Here, you must refer back to the literature review and conduct your own plan of how to go out and conduct research that helps answer your research question. You need to be able to argue the relevance of your research design, both in terms of the research question, and be reflexive on how it produces valid and coherent knowledge. In particular, state and justify your data collection method.
NB: yo are not expected to conduct the research here, but write it as if you would so that it is convincing research design.

1) Make sure you referencing fits with the format as outlined in the expanded syllabus. This will affect your grade, since it relates to the overall professionalism of the text.

2) Remember that the assignment is a research design and not an actual essay. Read through the guidance in the syllabus, as well as the examples of previous assignments, if you’re not sure.

3) In professional writing, avoid colloquial abbrevations like ‘you’re’, ‘don’t', ‘couldn’t', and so on. These are for more conversational forms of writing, like this email.

4) This is an IR assignment, meaning that you need to frame your topic in terms of its relevance to IR (International Relations).



  1. Discuss each perspective (or) paradigm; and provide examples of each.
    1. Functionalist Perspective/Paradigm
    2. Conflict Perspective/Paradigm
    3. Interactionist Perspective/Paradigm

NOTE: You must know perspectives/paradigms thoroughly. The basis of sociology is understanding, and applying sociological paradigms. Our mission is to apply sociological perspectives to situations (crime, strikes, boycotts, education, dating, marriage, economy, etc) within society.


DQ Internet Freedom Of Speech

This week, we are looking deeper into the practice of communicating online. This term we have talked about the process of communication and ethical communication. Now we are going to apply these concepts to our online communication. This week we discuss the topic of freedom of speech and whether we should be allowed to say anything we want on the Internet.

This week you need to take a stance on this issue. But remember, you also need to practice ethical and responsible communication while doing so. You are being asked to decide which side of the regulation of the Internet issue you agree with and then support your choice with examples and sound reasoning.

To prepare for this Discussion:

  • Go to the COMM 1001 Library Course Guide link from the Week 5 Learning Resources area:
    • In the Week 5 tab, you will find search boxes for the Opposing Viewpoints and CQ Researcherlinks (on the right side for Opposing Viewpoints and on the left side for CQ Researcher).
    • There is a description of how to navigate each database. There is also a video link at the bottom of each section demonstrating how to use the CQ Researcher or Opposing Viewpoints databases.
    • Choose one of the databases and in the search box provided, type “Internet Freedom of Speech” and hit “Search” or “Go.”
    • A list of links to articles and websites will come up on either database. These articles will cover a variety of topics within the subject of “Internet Freedom of Speech.”
    • Choose one topic you find interesting that comes up in articles or websites on the list.
    • Find at least 2 articles, websites, etc. from the list that will help you support your arguments about that topic.
  • Review the document, “How to Build an Argument”
  • Review the document, “How to Apply Terms, Module 2”
  • Review the document, “Week 5 Discussion Rubric.” This will help you make sure you have included all requirements in your discussion assignment.

With these thoughts in mind, your assignment is to:

Post by Day 3 a 200- to 300-word analysis that addresses the following:

Some people believe that we should be able to post anything we want on the internet. Others believe the Internet should be highly regulated. Either way, we have an ethical responsibility when we communicate on the Internet.

  1. Choose one aspect of “Internet Freedom of Speech,” that came up in your research through the library, as an example and describe why the Internet should or should not be regulated in the case you chose.
    • Follow the three step process, explained in the “How to Build an Argument” document, when writing your opinion on the topic.
    • Include at least 2 ideas from the materials (articles, websites, etc.) you found during your library research to support your argument. Use the “How to Apply Terms, Module 2” document to help you do this.
  2. Think about the effects of posting in a public forum such as the Internet. Discuss what you believe your social responsibility is as a communicator who uses this communication channel. Do this by providing at least 2 guidelines you set for yourself when communicating online (such as when using social media, chat rooms, commenting on blogs) and explain why they are important.
  3. You have learned in this class the importance of how you communicate, being careful with the words you choose, and being civil when you communicate. Be sure to practice civility in your post and responses to classmates. Be respectful of other’s rights to their opinions and they in turn will be respectful to you.

Be sure to support your ideas by connecting them to the week’s Learning Resources and something you have read, heard, seen, or experienced.



“one leadership style is better than another one.”

Topic: What to do you base you argument on by saying that “one leadership style is better than another one.”

Double space. But need to be a full page.


H.R.499 – Ending Federal Marijuana Prohibition Act of 2013

H.R.499 – Ending Federal Marijuana Prohibition Act of 2013


What is the unit conversion cost for May?

The ledger of Custer Company has the following work in process account.

Work in Process—Painting 5/1 Balance 4,620 5/31 Transferred out ? 5/31 Materials 6,430 5/31 Labor 3,900 5/31 Overhead 2,310 5/31 Balance ?

Production records show that there were 430 units in the beginning inventory, 30% complete, 1,400 units started, and 1,580 units transferred out. The beginning work in process had materials cost of $2,880 and conversion costs of $1,740. The units in ending inventory were 40% complete. Materials are entered at the beginning of the painting process.

(a), (b) and (c)

(a) How many units are in process at May 31?

Work in process, May 31


(b) What is the unit materials cost for May? (Round unit costs to 2 decimal places, e.g. 2.25.)

The unit materials cost for May $

(c) What is the unit conversion cost for May? (Round unit costs to 2 decimal places, e.g. 2.25.)

The unit conversion cost for May $

Listening Skills development

A.  Explain (suggested length 2–3 paragraphsone listening strategy that would be easily incorporated into any lesson plan and that reinforces the use of listening or oral communication skills.


Note: You might use the attached “Primary Listening/Speaking Rubric” to help you think about possible skills to focus on.


B.  Create an activity that is meant to develop a specific listening or oral communication skill (e.g., listen attentively; listen without interrupting; ask and answer questions, speak in complete sentences).

C.  Discuss (suggested length 2–3 paragraphs) how to support the development of listening and oral communication skills for all students.

D.  Discuss (suggested length of 1–2 pages) why listening and oral communication skills are important to the development of language.



E.   When you use sources, include all in-text citations and references in APA format.



different strains and physiology, structure and so on and must include five sources minimum



Watch the “Your Business Structure” and “Corporate Business Structures” videos on the Electronics Reserve Readings page.


Identify the different business structures.

Write a 350 to 700 word explanation of how each business structure might and might not be advantageous.


econominc impact of electronic health records

Please cross post to the paper below on economic impact of electronic health records. Strictly APA by the publication manual of the American psychological association 6th edition second practice. Plagiarism free paper Write in Third person only. Special attention to the reference page, title page Verb/noun agreement. Grammar is big. Masters level/DNP [doctor of nursing practice. Introduction and conclusions required. Use headings when needed. Thesis statement pivotal, conclusion critical, correct margin and title page. Full references including publisher, volume # and issue #. Please do not repeat any information or references from the below paper
Once the initial discussions are posted, each student will select a different topic and crosspost to another student’s work. Individual student crossposts are intended to add substantive content to the post and add to the topic by contributing new information to the topic.
Individual student crossposts should be approximately 500 words and a minimum of 4 references. Students are not required to ’claim’ a topic for cross posting. Multiple students may crosspost to the same original post; however, information posted should be new content and duplication must be avoided.

Economic Impact of Electronic Health Records

Electronic Health Records place a huge financial strain on the stability of healthcare delivery in the United States.  Electronic Health Records are a major part of the current healthcare reform. In 2004, President Bush pushed through the initiative that in ten years all Americans would have their medical record in the form of an electronic/digital health record (Kutzin, 2013).  This goal was to ensure that providing healthcare would become cheaper and safer.  EHR’s are a part of the national data system which allows healthcare providers access to individual health records at the touch of a keyboard.  Medical errors would be reduced and data collected would be utilized to support safer patient outcomes.  Some 100,000 persons are killed each year by preventable medical errors (Terry, 2013).  Are the benefits of EHR’s worth the ever increasing financial burden on the American taxpayer?  Have EHR’s made the delivery of healthcare safer for patients?

Healthcare delivery in the United States is a multi-trillion dollar business.  In 2009, the U.S. Government spent 17.4% ($2.6 trillion) of its Gross Domestic Product (GDP) on healthcare.  Digitizing patient records accounted for $27 billion dollars (Kutzin, 2013).  The American people do not like to consider healthcare as a business.  However, Americans out spend every other country in the world on cost of healthcare per person.  The U.S. spends over $8,000 dollars per person each year (Shaw, 2013).  Healthcare delivery system cannot continue to function without balancing the financial books and reducing the amount of money spent on healthcare (Kelly, 2013).


Recession hit the American economy hard in 2000.  Funding for Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act (HITECH) was politically impossible to fund.  In 2009, only 1.5% of all U.S. hospitals had electronic healthcare records. Of that 1.5% only 7.6% of hospitals had working forms of computerized orders, medication records and electronic patient records capability (Verdon, 2014).  Pushing through legislation to mandate EHR’s seemed to be a large uphill battle.  As the recession ended, HITECH provided new incentives with $30 billion dollars from Health & Human Services (Pizer & Gardner, 2011).  This money was provided as a subsidy for hospitals and physicians offices to upgrade their electronic patient records.  Doctors would receive an incentive of $44,000 dollars over a five year period to meet “meaningful use” criteria.  Hospital incentives would begin at two million dollars with additional money incentives based on inpatient numbers and discharges (Morley, Walsh & Wilkins, 2013).  Hospitals and doctor’s offices went into the program knowing that the government incentive program would pay only a portion of the estimated cost.  Hospitals would have to spend at least another $120 billion dollars to make the initial investment work correctly (Verdon, 2014).  HITECH placed mandatory regulations on an escalating scale of completion.  Hospitals and doctor’s offices would not receive one-time payment but have to earn payment after certain stages of completion.  This method would ensure that once a hospital started down the EHR path that they would never be able to turn back. Hospitals would be locked into making more and more sophisticated and demanding alterations to their growing EHR system (Diggs, 2012).

Doctor’s offices felt a heavy burden in meeting the mandatory stage requirements of meaningful use.  Doctor’s offices found themselves needing to add new staffing positions.  Current staffing was constructed around providing healthcare and not information technology.  Meaningful use criteria held doctors responsible for meeting all criteria regardless of being within the doctor’s direct control. Failing to meet even one of the core measures would have the potential of denial of all incentive funding (Verdon, 2014).  Records show that larger hospital and larger physician groups had more resources to hire, train and implement the mandatory requirements.  Smaller, private hospital and physician offices were less likely to have fully functioning EHR’s.  Financial barriers, time barriers and technical barriers were more difficult for smaller agencies to overcome (Pizer & Gardner, 2011).


Electronic Health Records (EHR’s) collect information in a digital format and is instrumental in medical billing and statistical data recording.  The less clear picture is whether EHR’s reduce cost and improve quality of care.  Current data indicates that many doctors and hospitals are far behind the curve of purchasing and implementing the mandates of Electronic Health Record’s (Shaw, 2013). Health Information Technology (HIT) monies are available for electronic updates.  As of 2009, 70% of physicians surveyed reported that the monetary investment into EHR’s have NOT been worth the expense (Warner, 2011).

Cost-benefit analysis is an essential part of a viable business.  No business can spend an unlimited amount of money.  Doctor’s offices are finding that they make a huge up-front investment in EHR’s, as well as continued investment in hardware, software, training time and  information technology support staff (Terry, 2013).  Government reports state that a five person doctor’s clinic will spend approximately $160,000 dollars on start-up investment.  Additional $85,000 dollars will go toward yearly maintenance expenses (Kutzin, 2013).

EHR’s have been mandated for the last six years.  Approximately 70% of U.S. hospitals and 50% of physician offices have implemented electronic patient records.  Only now can real data be collected and analyzed to the true test of functionality and success.  Do EHR’s make patients safer and justify the expense?  Physicians report fundamental flaws in how different software provider’s software is not compatible with each other and directly hinders the collection and flow of data. Doctors suffer from “alert” fatigue from specific chronic conditions that require large number of check box criteria.  Doctors become more data entry personnel and less medical professionals.  New data is suggesting that doctors hire transcription personnel and take the doctor off the computer screen.  Any cost saving measures of EHR’s is quickly eaten up in the huge administrative costs (Diggs, 2012).


Debate remains between performance of EHR’s and the cost of implementation.  By the year 2016, HITECH predicted that you would have trouble finding a doctor without EHR in their place of practice.  Data collected in 2014 suggests that some 35% of healthcare providers do not even have basic electronic healthcare technologies in place.  Rural, small and poorly funded agencies are lagging behind in the implementation of technology (Morley, Walsh & Wilkins, 2013).  Older doctors are refusing to update and choosing to retire from practice.  A large percentage of the current EHR providers are not adequately equipped to share data with other agencies.  Data is suggesting that Electronic Healthcare Technologies have added between 25-30% costs to healthcare. Current data indicates that patient safety, reliability/access of data and patient satisfaction has not justified the large financial investment in Electronic Health Records (Kelly, 2013).


Diggs, S.N. (2012). Health disparities and health care financing: Restructuring the American

health care system.  Journal of Health Care Finance, 38(4), 76-90.

Kelly, A. (2013).  The cost conundrum: Financing the business of health care insurance.  Journal

of Health Care Finance, 39 (4), 15-27.

Kutzin, J. (2013).  Health financing for universal coverage and health system performance:

Concepts and implications for policy.  Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 91(8),


Morley, M.A., Walsh, E.G., & Wilkins, J.C. (2013).  Financing integrated care in the financial

alignment demonstration.  Generations, 37(2), 24-9.

Pizer, S.D., & Gardner, J.A. (2011).  Is fragmented financing bad for your health?  Inquiry,

48 (2), 109-22.

Shaw, G. (2013).  The cost-benefit calculation of electronic health records systems.  Retrieved

March 18, 2014, from

Terry, N.P. (2013).  Meaningful adoption: What we know or think we know about the financing,

effectiveness, quality, and safety of electronic medical records.  Journal of Legal

Medicine, 34 (1), 7-42.

Verdon, D.R. (2014).  Physician outcry on her functionality, cost will shake the health

information technology sector.  Retrieved March 23, 2014, from

Warner, D. (2011).  The ehr impact on staffing models.  Journal of AHIMA, 82(9), 44-5.


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